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區塊鏈技術在供應鏈金融方向的應用

什麽是供應鏈管理?

供應鏈管理涵蓋整個計劃,包括不同流程的執行。包括了物質流、信息流以及金融資産流的流動、存儲和轉移。在供應鏈管理中,供應鏈是在生産過程中,將個體、組織、資源及技術相結合在一起。

供應鏈的過程,是從原材料到産品,再到客戶,涉及到諸多個人、實體,過程會跨越數月。由于當前的供應鏈的複雜性及缺乏透明性,區塊鏈技術的出現革新了供應鏈和物流領域。

區塊鏈技術會如何改變供應鏈?

區塊鏈技術具有去中心化、透明性和不以篡改的特性。因此區塊鏈技術是應用在供應鏈管理的絕佳工具。每次産品的交易都可以記錄在區塊鏈上,爲産品創建從制造到銷售過成的永久曆史記錄。這樣減少了時間延遲和人爲造成的錯誤。區塊鏈技術的應用可以提升以下幾點:

  • 記錄産品的數量和轉移過程。
  • 跟蹤采購訂單,更改訂單、收據等相關信息。
  • 驗證産品認證的有效性,例如是否符合質量標准。
  • 記錄供應鏈中的共享産品的制造過程信息,例如組裝、交付和維修等。

行業應用:

1.供應鏈金融:

供應鏈上的中小企業融資難成本高,由于銀行依賴的是核心企業的控貨能力和調節銷售能力,出于風控的考慮,銀行僅願意對核心企業有直接應付賬款義務的上遊供應商提供保理業務,或對其下遊經銷商,提供預付款或者存貨融資。

阿裏巴巴、京東、蘇甯等電商巨頭,擁有平台的大數據優勢,因此他們對于中小微企業進行信用風險評級,具有良好的風控體系。而區塊技術不可篡改的特性,使得一級供應商對核心企業的應收賬款,可以根據供應商的需求,在合規的情況進行債權轉讓,因而能實現多級應收賬款的拆分、流轉的保理模式。

2.物流領域:

區塊鏈的最大特性就在不可篡改。在物流過程中,使用區塊鏈技術以後的物流信息涵蓋了生産、運輸、通關、報檢、第三方檢驗等商品進口全流程。如此,將給每個商品打上獨一無二的“身份證”。這些數據包括了商品的原産地、啓運地、裝貨港、運輸方式、進口口岸、保稅倉檢驗檢疫單號、海關申報單號等等,這些由各方提供的信息都將成爲一個組合,供消費者查證。

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