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爆紅的NFT區塊鏈藝術是何方神聖?

隨著比特幣和乙太坊等數位加密貨幣價格的上漲,NFT今年大受歡迎。NFT是一種數位資產,旨在使用區塊鏈技術追蹤特定虛擬物品(如藝術品或體育交易卡)的所有權。去年,NFT交易的總價值增長了3倍,達到2.5億美元。而僅在過去一個月,NFT的總銷售額就超過了2.2億美元。

美國邁阿密藝術收藏家羅德里格斯福瑞爾(Pablo Rodriguez-Fraile)去年10月以近6萬7000美元代價,買下數字藝術家Beeple的一件影片作品。這支10秒鐘影片可以在網路上免費觀看,但他為何花錢買下?一件由區塊鏈鑒證的10秒鐘影片藝術品,短短5個月內價格飆漲百倍,逼近新臺幣2億元,反映「不可替代代幣」(non-fungible token,NFT)這種新型數字資產的火熱程度。

英國塗鴉藝術家班克西(Banksy)價值9.5萬美元的版畫《傻瓜》(Morons)不久前被燒毀,轉成NFT,以38萬美元售出。NFT可買賣、交易,無實體,可視為虛擬或實體資產的擁有權證明書。

NFT領域之所以能吸引投資者的關注,也容易理解。原因是這件作品由區塊鏈鑒定認證,也就是以區塊鏈為數位簽章,來確認誰擁有這件作品及作品的真偽。區塊鏈技術不像傳統上在網路可以無限複製的數位物件,能夠公開認證為獨一無二的物品。這種新型數字資產形式稱為不可替代代幣(NFT),因為具有獨一無二的特質,所以也稱為非同質化代幣,對比「能替代的」資產如美元、股票或金條。

當前,這個市場正在迅速增長,一些數字收藏品的售價高達數百萬美元。與此同時,比特幣和乙太坊等數位加密貨幣也出現反彈。隨著NFT的爆火,相應的安全問題也隨之浮於表面。在最熱門的交易平臺之一 Nifty Gateway 上,陸續有多位使用者傳出帳戶被盜用消息。駭客利用這個帳號下單交易價值上萬美元的商品後,再將獲利轉移到其他電子錢包,目前損失最嚴重的一位用戶,聲稱他有 15 件 NFT 商品被盜走轉賣,估值約 15 萬美元。除了數位資產被變賣,這些使用者的信用卡資訊也都被竊走,損失慘重。共計在 Nifty Gateway 平臺上已有多名使用者帳戶被盜用,估計損失 20 萬美元。

雖然這些受害者都表示他們被駭客入侵,但是 Nifty Gateway 平臺官方回應表示,他們接獲消息後,確實發現有這些交易行為,但是網站系統卻沒有任何被入侵的跡象,經查證後發現,這些被盜用戶,都沒有採用兩階段認證。

NFT在爆火的同時也得到爭議,批評人士認為,這是另一種神秘的時尚,最終將逐漸變得無關緊要。也有人擔心潛在的市場操縱,類似于傳統藝術界的情況。與此同時,環保人士對NFT市場所需的能源也感到震驚。

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