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數碼經濟的特徵及應用

數碼經濟是互聯網上發生的所有經濟交易的一個統稱,廣泛牽涉人工智慧、機器人、物聯網、自動駕駛汽車、3D列印、區塊鏈、生物技術等科技在大資料環境之下的緊密互動、運作極為複雜。智慧化的社會發展模式及經濟結構為社會帶來顛覆性的改革,專家更指出上世紀末開始全球已踏入受數碼化推動的「第四次工業革命」時代。綜合而言,數碼經濟具有以下三類特徵:

第一是去仲介化,互聯網的應用令生產者無須經實體店擺賣,令顧客與生產者之間的距離快速拉近,無需再經過中間的多層分銷,增加企業的運作效率和降低企業成本,同時令消費者在足不出戶的情況下購物,並享受更低廉的價格。 例如淘寶和亞馬遜等網上購物平臺的營運模式已經令它們成為數一數二的網企。

第二是共用經濟、互聯網和行動通訊技術的應用容許人們把閒置的資源轉讓,並從中圖利,形成以線民協作為核心動力的「用戶對用戶」(C2C)商業模式,帶動供給端能力釋放,透過物聯網發酵,達到快速廣泛的媒合,例如Uber透過應用程式快速把駕駛者的閒置時間和車輛分配給使用者。對使用者來說,不僅降低交易成本、提高市場資訊透明度、建立市場供需,同時也為企業建立了使用者的行為大資料庫,有助於未來針對使用者的需要,提供更多元化服務。

第三是大眾化,互聯網經濟令眾創、眾包及眾籌出現。這些運作模式建基於企業於互聯網提出要求,然後合適的普羅網眾群策群力,籌集理念、勞動力和資金,協助企業實行目標,例如中國的創意功夫網讓有短期設計需要的企業在其網頁尋找眾包設計服務,大眾化的模式促進了發明創新、工作外包及籌募資本的發展。

以上三類特徵令數碼經濟的應用非常廣泛,大家常用的社交平臺Facebook、共用單車Loco Bike、房屋租住平臺Airbnb和網購平臺HKTV Mall其實都是屬於數碼經濟的一部分,可見數碼經濟已經與大家的生活息息相關。

在〈數碼經濟的特徵及應用〉中有 17 則留言

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