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數字人民幣發展進入快車道

隨著數字經濟的興起和發展,中國民眾的現金使用率近年來持續下降,而手機支付比率則穩步上升。根據該銀行2019年開展的中國支付日記帳調查顯示,手機支付的交易筆數和金額占比分別為66%和59%,而現金交易筆數和金額占比則分別為23%和16%。這項調查還發現,46%的受訪者在調查期間完全沒有發生現金交易。

順應潮流,中國自2014年以來,一直在考慮數字人民幣這個專案,但在最近幾個月加快了實驗,是在這方面走的最快的國家之一。中國央行7月17日宣佈,截至2021年6月30日,數字人民幣試點受邀白名單用戶已超1000萬,開立個人錢包2087萬個、對公錢包351萬個,累計交易筆數7075萬筆、金額345億元。央行表示,下一步,將繼續穩妥推進數字人民幣研發試點,央行將進一步擴大試點應用場景覆蓋面,實現特定試點區域內的應用場景全覆蓋,打造數字人民幣生態體系。同時,結合研發試點工作實際,擴大參研機構和試點測試地區範圍。

如今,數字人民幣在多個城市試點,涵蓋餐飲服務、生活繳費、購物消費、交通出行等多種消費場景。在數字人民幣錢包設計方面,滿足使用者多主體、多層次、多類別、多形態的差異化需求,確保數字錢包具有普惠性,避免因“數字鴻溝”帶來的使用障礙。安全性方面,實現不可重複花費、不可非法複製和偽造、交易不可篡改和抗抵賴等特性,初步建成多層次安全防護體系。引入分散式數字身份、零信任等新興技術的研究和應用,強化個人隱私資料保護技術措施。在合規性方面,數字人民幣適用現有反洗錢、反恐怖融資國際標準及國內法律要求,同時,還將在現有法律框架下制定專門的監管要求。

人民銀行在數字人民幣運營體系中處於中心地位,負責向作為指定運營機構的商業銀行發行數字人民幣並進行全生命週期管理,指定運營機構及相關商業機構負責向社會公眾提供數字人民幣兌換和流通服務。目前,參與數字人民幣研發的運營機構主要包括工行、農行、中行、建行、交行、郵儲銀行,中國移動和工行,中國聯通、中國電信和中行分別成立聯合項目組參與研發,螞蟻和騰訊兩家互聯網企業旗下網商和微眾銀行也參與研發,招商銀行近期亦已獲准加入。

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