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“十四五”迎來新能源熱潮

中國“十四五”時期對於實行綠色經濟放到了國家戰略地位,提出「推動綠色發展,促進人與自然和諧共生」,致力於要把碳達峰、碳中和納入生態文明建設整體佈局,拿出抓鐵有痕的勁頭,如期實現2030年前碳達峰、2060年前碳中和的目標。中國目標是每年把太陽能發電量增加5,500至5,800萬千瓦,並到2025年達6億千瓦;風能亦將於五年內每年增加4,500至6,500萬千瓦,至5.57億千瓦。

以“新起點、新戰略、新格局”為主題,推動新能源設施建設,“十四五”被視作是我國汽車行業加大自身轉型發展的重要時期。工業和資訊化部表示,加快補齊晶片技術、電池電芯技術,對於提高產品品質顯得尤為關鍵。與此同時需要鎖定智慧互聯網發展方向,加大新能源充電、換電、加氫以及網路環境基礎設施的建設。聯動各界共同努力,優化產業發展環境,共同維護汽車產業鏈穩定,圍繞碳中和目標,有序放開代工生產。

資料顯示,1月-5月,我國新能源車產銷分別完成96.7萬輛和95萬輛,同比均增長2.2倍,市場滲透率達到8.7%,長勢強勁。配套環境日趨完善,截至4月,全國累計建設充電站6.5萬座、換電站644座,各類充電樁187萬個,建成覆蓋176個城市、超過5萬公里的高速公路快充網路。截至5月底,國內新能源車保有量約580萬輛,約占全球新能源車總量的50%。預計未來5-8年,中國將有近2億輛國IV及以下在用車輛面臨淘汰替換,政府會加速新能源車市場化進程,占比將顯著提高至20%-30%。同時,中汽協預計未來五年新能源車產銷增速將保持在40%以上。

根據去年4月最新發佈的《關於新能源汽車免征車輛購置稅有關政策的公告》,當前,減免政策將從自2021年1月1日持續到2022年12月31日。目前來看,到2023年之前新能源汽車仍然佔有購置稅上的優勢。而且,當下眾多傳統車企均公佈了較為密集的新能源汽車產品戰略,接下來幾年,新能源汽車產品數量將會快速趕超傳統燃油車,消費者的新能源汽車的接受度將進一步得到提升。

業內人士表示,在當下我國供電系統仍然以火電為主要發電模式的背景下,新能源汽車的普及要想實現對碳中和實現更實質性的貢獻,仍需在根本上改良我們的能源供應體系。否則,新能源汽車賣得越好,發電帶來的碳排放只會進一步提高,甚至還會增加居民生活用電的供應壓力。

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