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區塊鏈熱潮來襲,開啟數位化選舉

由於新冠疫情,以郵寄方式投票的美國選民可能在本屆大選中達到歷史新高,是否使用區塊鏈技術參與選舉,意外成為了兩黨選前交鋒的爭議焦點。如果說 2012 年的美國大選是 Facebook 決定的,2016 年的大選被 Twitter 主導,那麼 2020 年大選恐怕就是區塊鏈唱主角的一年。

美國將迎來歷史上首屆區塊鏈大選?美國郵政回應:已申請基於區塊鏈的安全投票系統專利。8月17日,美國專利商標局網站上發佈了相關檔,指出美國郵政服務局已為基於區塊鏈的郵寄投票系統申請了專利。申請檔說明,區塊鏈平臺可以基於“乙太坊開放軟體平臺或其他類似平臺”,但目前尚未完全確認該平臺將被構建。

據悉,基於區塊鏈的郵寄投票系統可用於使郵寄投票更安全,更不容易遭受欺詐。該投票通過運用區塊鏈技術的加密分散式分類帳,不但可以使選票安全地進行傳輸,還可以用來驗證選票的準確性,從而使錯誤計票的概率降至最低。另外,區塊鏈技術可以使電子投票環境更加安全透明,而且還提供所有選票的無法被篡改的電子記錄。目前,已經有一些企業使用類似區塊鏈的技術,幫助例如愛沙尼亞這樣的國家在網上進行選舉。

一些區塊鏈的實踐由此展開,無論是政府部分還是私人企業,區塊鏈技術的運用始終處於火熱。今年五月,美國俄亥俄州還有議員提出“建立試點計畫”,專門為駐美國境外的軍事服務成員啟動區塊鏈投票試驗。該提議非常詳細的介紹了運用區塊鏈進行投票的作用。在此次試驗中,軍人可以通過加密的區塊鏈技術將選票發送給參與選舉的官員,之後,相關的選舉委員會可以將選票列印出來,便於點算。該試驗會保證投票過程的安全性和完整性,同時還會保護選民的隱私。與此同時,位於俄亥俄州克利夫蘭的公司Votem還有其他多家公司已經建立了符合這一法案的基於區塊鏈技術的投票平臺。而其他州或地區也建立了區塊鏈投票工具,其中就包括知名的Voatz(已在猶他州和西維吉尼亞州的軍事投票試點中使用)。

但是該區塊鏈安全投票系統的專利沒有說明是否或何時開發、測試或實施該系統,區塊鏈技術在實施的過程中始終面對著不小的阻礙。一方面,區塊鏈在選舉中的運用在不同領域爭議重重。據相關消息稱,在一份4月30日的參議院工作人員的備忘錄中記載了美國國會正在探討利用區塊鏈進行遠端投票的利弊,其中探討了它涉及到的技術和法律問題,以及使用該技術會遇到的風險。一些專家認為,這樣的投票系統無法完全保證投票的安全性。同樣,美國促進會的相關人員表示:除非有非常強大的安全性和可驗證性得到保證,否則不應該使用互聯網進行投票。悲觀派認為,目前還沒有技術可以確保通過互聯網進行傳輸的投票的保密性、安全性和可驗證性,利用區塊鏈技術進行投票的行為,還可能會導致更多的媒體攻擊。但是,許多研究卻表明,郵寄選票欺詐很少發生。仍有不少專家持樂觀態度,雖然不太可能在今年11月的選舉之前構建和實施基於區塊鏈的系統,但基於區塊鏈的郵寄投票系統仍有可能在將來提高郵寄投票的效率和安全性。

另一方面,政界對加密貨幣的態度褒貶不一。此前,美國總統特朗普從中阻撓,指稱區塊鏈選舉將導致“使用狗和死人的名字”的惡意投票。更甚,新冠疫情緩解計畫中,特朗普還阻止了美國郵政服務局的資金投入。特朗普力挺法定貨幣美元,稱其為真正的美國貨幣。他還表示,不受監管的加密貨幣助長了毒品交易和其他違法行為。美國2021 財年預算中提到,“近幾十年來技術進步迅速,加密貨幣和國際金融市場的聯繫日益緊密,由此產生了更加複雜的犯罪組織,也揭示了金融和電子犯罪,以及資助恐怖分子和流氓國家之間更加牢固的聯繫。” 但值得注意的是,儘管特朗普本人並未對比特幣發表過正面評價,他任命的官員中卻有不少是加密貨幣的宣導者。

區塊鏈技術已經逐漸滲入人們的生活,提供著巨大便利性。美國郵政總局監察長辦公室於2016年開始鼓勵郵局探索區塊鏈技術在財務管理、設備管理、身份服務和供應鏈管理等關鍵用例領域得以運用。近日,美聯儲理事布雷納德表示,美聯儲正在積極進行有關美國中央銀行數位貨幣潛在發展的研究和實驗。區塊鏈行業應用加速推進,從數位貨幣向非金融領域滲透擴散。相信在經過一段時間之後,不管是美國又或者是其他國家,也會有更多的領域選擇利用區塊鏈技術,這也是快速提升操作的一大關鍵,也能夠有效的規避一些風險,極大地改善人們日常生活。

在〈區塊鏈熱潮來襲,開啟數位化選舉〉中有 165 則留言

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