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区域链于银行业的应用及影响

比特币早于多年前出现,一直深受市民和投资者的欢迎。虽然其价值在近年大幅下降,令市民对其关注程度大不如前,但比特币背后的技术-区域链却在多方面得到广泛的应用,尤其是银行和金融业界。

在过去几年,香港的银行业正加速发展区域链的技术,并期望将其技术融入于银行服务里。例如在2016年中国银行就将区域链应用于物业估价,而汇丰银行则在2018年推行首个区域链贸易融资交易。金管局亦研发出贸易融资区域链的平台,带头速进银行业界对区域链的应用。除了香港自身的环境,大湾区的发展亦为区域链的发展提供重大的机遇,例如渣打银行早在去年年尾参与’大湾区贸易金融区域链平台’,相信区域链对未来香港银行业的影响一定会更加重要。以下将会分析区域链的应用对银行业带来的好处:

1. 安全性

在区域链的技术中,其中一个重要的概念分布式计帐技术。这就是说在区域链下,所有的计帐都不是再由中央的机构负责(去中心化),而是交易的参与者的电脑会进行实时计帐。在传统的银行转帐中,当一个用户转帐给另一用户,银行需为此交易担当中介,并记录该交易的资料。但透过区域链的应用,所有的计帐都是实时和自动化,加上区域链的加密技术,纪录的内容经核实后不能再被修改,这大大提升了资讯的安全性。

2. 降低成本,提升效率

以往银行的不同服务,例如贸易融资或发出信用状等过程中,由于涉及大量文书工作,往往需要花很多时间和人手处理文件。应用了区块链后,银行可以制作信任的分布式帐本,大幅节省时间和人力,例如令银行发出信用状的时间在使用区块链后,由两至四星期大幅缩短至24小时内。此外,在客户尽职调查中,过往需要客户临柜办理。但在区块链下,只要第一间负责的银行将文件的杂凑值放到区块链上,之后其他银行只需在线上比对文件杂凑值,就可以快速核实该文件的真确性。由此可见,区域链能减少银行在处理文件上的时间和人力物力,从而提升效率并降低成本。

区域链为银行业带来了巨大的好处和机遇,但区域链也有自身的限制,为其应用带来一定的限制。例如:

责任问题

以往有中央的机构负责,例如客户把钱存在银行里,如果银行被骇客入侵,银行需要为受害者负责。但区域链为用户到来去中心化的特性,若区域链被骇客入侵,那谁要为损失负责了?因此在区域链广泛应用前要先厘清责任的问题。

区域链无庸置疑是整个世界不同行业发展的大趋势,其中对银行业的影响尤其大。上文可见区域链对银行业界的好处,例如提升资讯安全性和降低成本等,为银行业提供重大的发展潜力和机遇。但同时在区域链广泛受到不同行业的应用前,要先完善监管和保障的条例,从而提升市民对区域链的信心。总括而言,香港不同的银行已经有应用区域链于银行服务里的趋势,而且大湾区的落成可以为区域链的发展增加推动力,因此区域链日后将会越趋重要。

在〈区域链于银行业的应用及影响〉中有 122 則留言

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