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虚拟银行——传统银行与互联网的结合

在二零一九年五月上旬,金管局已经将八个虚拟银行牌照全数发出,这意味着香港银行业的革命已经正式开始。香港作为世界知名的金融中心,银行业发展蓬勃,在一个区区只有七百万人的都市,已经吸引了超过一百六十间传统持牌银行进驻,平均每十万人就有21.43间银行分行,远高于全球平均的12.6间[1]。香港银行业的竞争如此激烈,到底虚拟银行到底何去何从?

虚拟银行的独特之处

虚拟银行的定义是没有实体分行的银行,当中所有服务或交易例如借贷、存款等都可以在网上进行。其实银行服务电子化趋势存在已久,各大银行亦早已经推出了自己的手机应用程序,但虚拟银行的最大优势并非专注单纯的电子化,而是透过新兴金融科技的应用,从而进一步提升银行业的营运效率。简单举一个例子,平时客户想向银行借贷,借贷手续往往非常繁复,有别于平时传统银行的查核信贷评级,虚拟银行则是透过大数据等技术快速评估客户的信贷评级,虚拟银行的运用的技术更能快速而全面地分析客户。

虚拟银行为金融市场带来的冲击

自从各大互联网公司开始积极开放金融科技业务,传统银行的地位亦开始站不住脚,纷纷推出拥抱互联网的升级方案,推出虚拟银行。香港作为国际金融中心,在内地金融科技发展的影响底下,虚拟银行的引入无疑会为银行业带来革命性的冲击。随着网络及智能手机普及化,作为金融支付的重要角色,银行的核心本质并未改变,但支付形态与工具已经不同,由传统纸张及钱币的交易模式转化为以计算机、手机网络等为交易媒体,并用数据转移的形式就可短时间内完成资金调拨及金融流动等动作。因此传统银行已无法取悦用户对于效率的需求,而虚拟银行正正能够针对这一点,为用户提供全天候服务,并迎合用户个

人需要,改变现时银行业界的生态。

虚拟银行的隐忧

虽则虚拟银行的推出能够为传统银行服务业引入转变及新思维,与此同时中小型银行未必能够承受该庞大冲击,更对它们的营运构成实时威胁。要保证虚拟银行的推出后仍然能够保留一定的客户,传统银行的技术产品必须不断推陈出新,而往往由于中小型银行欠缺足够资金及反应去面对挑战,因此导致它们慢慢逐渐被淘汰。

另一边厢,由于开发虚拟银行需要大量科研成本,一众大行因风险宠大并不愿做「开荒牛」,更遑论众多中小型银行愿意率先冒险开发技术。故此,虚拟银行的门坎过高亦是令银行业界却步的重要因素之一。有见及此,要在短期内广泛应用虚拟银行并不可行,而技术方面的不成熟更会大大打击客户信心。

其次,鉴于虚拟银行并没有实体分行,客户的信心将完全取决于对该银行的信任,再加上网络安全的问题,推出计划的短期内或会令大多数用户却步。除此之外,对于老一辈而言,基于对电子化操作的抗拒虚拟银行亦会为他们带来不便,实体银行的存在仍然必要,故此要令虚拟银行受到广大市民所接纳仍需要一段时间。

金融电子化的安全性问题依然存疑。尽管虚拟银行的推出能够为现今社会提供多一个管理资产的方法,但假若个人资料得不到足够的保障,数据外泄的问题只会加剧,甚至会出现客户资产被盗取的情况,让不法分子有机可乘。而要解决保安问题并非短期内能够做到,若然问题尚存在则难以吸引银行引入技术,最终拖慢金融科技发展。


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