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区块链,一个重塑房地产行业的契机

房地产在任何国家都是国计民生的命脉行业。2019全球房地产投资交易较为活跃,前9个月全球房地产总交易额达到5500亿美元,可见,房地产无疑是相当重要的财富储备。然而传统的房地产投资市场正面临着最大两个问题:流动性差和透明度不高。一是,传统的房地产交易周期很长,房地产投资者在急需现金的时候无法将手中的房地产尽快脱手,或者即使脱手也难达到合理的价格;二是,房地产交易需要银行等第三方的参与,双方信息并不能完全公开,从而增加付款争议可能性。

然而,上述的房地产发展问题都可以通过区块链技术得以改善。其中,最简单的区块链是分布式数据库,通过记录交易并将其并入一个去中心化的安全总账系统,并且创建了任何一方都不能随意更改的时序数据链。其核心价值在于系统能够实时验证和跟踪交易,无需通过银行等第三方来完成。这一技术有望重塑房地产行业的方方面面,并大大加快交易速度,同时增强交易透明度。

诚然,区块链在房地产的应用能够有效提高资产流动性。如果所有投资都通过总账注册,投资者之间的股份交换将变得更为简便。以圣地亚戈的房地产投资招商银行Silver Portal Capital LLC为例,这是最早尝试区块链技术的银行之一。去年,他们与纽约电子交易技术公司Fundamental Interactions Inc.合作发布了Silver Portal Markets交易平台,这个平台是以区块链技术为本的二级交易,这更加便于访问同类最佳的房地产证券保荐人与发行商,如此给之前受限的二级市场带来了新的活力,同时也为非流动性房地产证券和资产带来创新变革。

不仅如此,区块链在房地产的应用还能增强交易透明度。区块链使得在全世界范围内实时创建、验证和审核合同成为可能,无需中间人的参与。智能合同将指令根植于交易中,租赁或出售协议的每一部分得以自动生成,收付款也可以做到实时进行,不再受工作时间限制。并且,只有指令得到执行后才可以提取付款,对各方都是完全透明的,从而减少了发生付款争议的可能性。

此外,区块链技术的另一个吸引力是它可用于记录土地所有权,在目前大多数信息仍然无法线上查询的情况下,区块链技术有望大幅减少传统上记录和转让所有权冗长的过程,并且具有无懈可击的透明度。现今,已有越来越多的政府寻求应用安全总账作为存储和访问所有权历史记录的方法。英国政府不久前宣布了一项名为“数字街”(Digital Street)的计划,该计划要求在2022年之前将本国土地登记完成向区块链技术过渡。据报道,瑞典、乌克兰、迪拜和格鲁吉亚共和国都在进行类似计划。

诚然,要打造一条完善的房地产区块链,将房地产的所有信息记录下来非常不容易,需要政府协调各方共同参与。比如,在中国雄安新区,蚂蚁金服作为区块链技术的提供方,中国建设银行和链家地产作为房源信息的服务方,他们共同打造了租房领域的区块链,保证房东和房屋信息证实有效,避免房客遇到假房东,租到假房子。据报道,国内首个房地产 “测评链” 于2020年3月19日正式上线。这是房地产区块链又一大进步,它会对客户身份信息进行实名认证,并将链上所有信息进行记录,可以追踪溯源,使得用户对所有数据动态了然于胸。

不过,房地产区块链也有不足之处,一旦实施不当,反而会增加成本。比如,房地产交易过程中,经常会取消订单,从而使得区块链的不可篡改性变成巨大负担。总的来说,虽然房地产区块链还处于发展初期,但潜力十分巨大,一旦发展成熟,定当会为参与房地产交易的各方提供巨大便利,加速房地产行业的发展。

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